That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.

Isaac Newton
Letter to Richard Bentley (1692)

Newton had suggested that special tiny repellent particles pervade the whole of space, making up an invisible, weightless medium capable of transmitting gravity or magnetism, yet rare enough to leave the planets virtually unaffected.

Sir Isaac Newton (1643 to 1727)
Alternative explanation of gravity
Authors:
David W Gold
Abstract:

The objective of this paper is twofold. First, in extending the current thermodynamic properties of mass, temperature, volume, and pressure to include the substantiation of mass density as a thermodynamic property. It will be shown that mass density is not just a straightforward ratio of mass and volume, but only presents a true ratio when heterogeneous states of matter are in an equilibrium state. It will also be shown that, for a given gas of constant mass, the product of density and temperature remain constant irrespective of change in volume and/or pressure. Second, in this paper, where molality is used as a generic term relating to the unitary mole, provides a methodological approach to establishing precise molality by refinement of the Avogadro principle and, consequently, dispenses with the gas constant. Computation is then specific when dealing with real gases.

PACS numbers:
01.40.-d, 01.55.+b, 51.30.+i
Updated:
31 October 2022
Key subjects:
General Physics -> Thermodynamical Properties of Gases, Relative Aspects of Matter, Avogadro’s Principle, Precise Molality, Intermolecular Forces, Equilibrium of State
Authors:
David W Gold
Abstract:

Assessments of the quasi-magnetic monopoles, experimentally discovered in tetrahedral crystal structures of spin ices, exhibit conformity with the theoretical particles that Paul Dirac theorised to retain duality symmetry between the electromagnetic unified fields. During deliberation into the magnetic force led to the serendipitous insight that the existence of gravitons would consist of magnetic monopole dual particles, which self-organise into theoretical ‘Gravity Strands’ – the modus operandi as to the vera causa of the gravitational force. A theoretical premise readily developed, from which evolved a solution for quantum gravity in perfect unity with magnetic and electrical fundamental forces, thereby forming a foundation for Quantum Magnetodynamics.

PACS numbers:
04.60.-m, 14.80.Hv, 34.20.Cf, 05.70.Ce
Updated:
2 November 2023
Key subjects:
Quantum Gravity -> Quantum Chromodynamics, Magnetic Monopoles, Gravitons, Gravitation, Magnetism, Quantum Thermodynamics
Authors:
David W Gold
Abstract:

Quantum Magnetodynamics is presented as the foundation for Quantum Gravity where the solution realised a perfect unity between the gravitational, magnetic, and electrical fundamental forces. It also advances a plausible explanation for the existence of dark matter. This conceptual foundation is used to explore the influence of magnetodynamical processes throughout the cosmos; from an explication of the Big Bang event and the evolving conditions in the early universe that ensued to current compact cosmic objects associated with powerful magnetic fields. Magnetodynamical processes would fundamentally reconcile the extreme classical hierarchical scales of the universe, with its structural formations and their cohesion, to a governing process that originates at the quantum scale.

PACS numbers:
98.80.Qc, 95.35.+d, 97.60.-s, 98.80.Bp
Updated:
23 November 2023
Key subjects:
Quantum Cosmology -> Quantum Gravity, Gravitation, Magnetism, Quark-Gluon Plasma, Compact Cosmic Objects, Dark Matter
Authors:
David W Gold
Abstract:

A premise that Nature arises, at the quantum scale, from simplistic fundamental structures that progress into the complexity of functional structures, has highlighted an important requirement for the forces of Nature to be formulated from such a fundamental structural viewpoint. A model has been established by revisiting an existing paradigm for a methodological approach to revealing such a structure relating to the fundamental forces. This foundational representation provides a powerful predictive tool, which has pointed to the potential source of Dark Energy; in its revelation as a fundamental force and its essential counterbalance to gravity.

PACS numbers:
12.90.+b, 12.60.-i, 11.30.Ly, 13.15.+g
Updated:
15 March 2022
Key subjects:
Fundamental Physics, Particle Physics, Cosmology -> Fundamental Forces, Unified Fields, Dark Energy, Black Holes, Binary Star Systems, Big Bang, Super Inflation
Authors:
David W Gold
Abstract:

It is deduced from Einstein's famous equation in relation to the rest mass-energy of particles that the phenomenon of the quantum arises at the Planck scale from the discrete granularity of energy. This revelation is utilised in conjunction with the paradigm that, fundamentally, Nature has transpired from absolute correlative hetero-solutions, where each solution is the most minimal in substance but vast in potential, by introducing an absolute solution to the theoretical origin of distinct charges. This solution realises the minimal prerequisite for the formation of everything: particles, forces, and interactive processes, such that Nature was presented with just one ingredient – energy – to construct and activate the universe.

PACS numbers:
21.10.Ft, 14.65.Bt, 14.70.Dj, 14.80.Hv
Updated:
24 February 2024
Key subjects:
Particle Physics -> Vacuum Energy, Planck Scale, Granularity of Energy, Fundamental Particles, Fundamental Charges, General Relativity, Quantum Gravity
Authors:
David W Gold
Abstract:

A preliminary investigation into experimentally measured radii of particles shows there is for both composite and elementary particles a simple correlation between their mass and size. Among the provisional and yet significant conclusions is the explanation of the mass expression in Einstein's famous equation. This explanation is an assertion as to the origin of mass.

 

PACS numbers:
Updated:
23 January 2021
Key subjects:
Fundamental Physics -> Mass, Absolute Density, Higgs Mechanism, Massless Particles, Black Holes, Big Bang, Singularities.

Questions and problems are metaphorically the same.

If a solution to a problem cannot be found, it is simply because the problem is not understood.

Formulate the research into the problem; the solution will naturally formulate itself.

An absolute understanding of the problem will produce an absolute solution.

David W Gold

Absolute solutions are always the simplest of solutions (albeit, the most difficult to ascertain).

These solutions cannot be further simplified.

Indications are fundamentally Nature has transpired from absolute correlative hetero-solutions.

David W Gold