That one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it.
Newton had suggested that special tiny repellent particles pervade the whole of space, making up an invisible, weightless medium capable of transmitting gravity or magnetism, yet rare enough to leave the planets virtually unaffected.
The objective of this paper is twofold. First, in extending the current thermodynamic properties of mass, temperature, volume, and pressure to include the substantiation of mass density as a thermodynamic property. It will be shown that mass density is not just a straightforward ratio of mass and volume, but only presents a true ratio when heterogeneous states of matter are in an equilibrium state. It will also be shown that, for a given gas of constant mass, the product of density and temperature remain constant irrespective of change in volume and/or pressure. Second, in this paper, where molality is used as a generic term relating to the unitary mole, provides a methodological approach to establishing precise molality by refinement of the Avogadro principle and, consequently, dispenses with the gas constant. Computation is then specific when dealing with real gases.
Assessments of the quasi-magnetic monopoles, experimentally discovered in tetrahedral crystal structures of spin ices, exhibit conformity with the theoretical particles that Paul Dirac theorised to retain duality symmetry between the electromagnetic unified fields. During deliberation into the magnetic force led to the serendipitous insight that the existence of gravitons would consist of magnetic monopole dual particles, which self-organise into theoretical ‘Gravity Strands’ – the modus operandi as to the vera causa of the gravitational force. A theoretical premise readily developed, from which evolved a solution for quantum gravity in perfect unity with magnetic and electrical fundamental forces, thereby forming a foundation for Quantum Magnetodynamics.
Quantum Magnetodynamics is presented as the foundation for Quantum Gravity where the solution realised a perfect unity between the gravitational, magnetic, and electrical fundamental forces. It also advances a plausible explanation for the existence of dark matter. This conceptual foundation is used to explore the influence of magnetodynamical processes throughout the cosmos, from the evolving conditions in the early universe that ensued from the Big Bang to current compact cosmic objects associated with powerful magnetic fields. Magnetodynamical processes would fundamentally reconcile the extreme classical hierarchical scales of the universe, with its structural formations and their cohesion, to a governing process that originates at the quantum scale.
A premise that Nature arises, at the quantum scale, from simplistic fundamental structures that progress into the complexity of functional structures, has highlighted an important requirement for the forces of Nature to be formulated from such a fundamental structural viewpoint. A model has been established by revisiting an existing paradigm for a methodological approach to revealing such a structure relating to the fundamental forces. This foundational representation provides a powerful predictive tool, which has pointed to the potential source of Dark Energy; in its revelation as a fundamental force and its essential counterbalance to gravity.
It is deduced from Einstein's famous equation in relation to the rest mass-energy of particles that the phenomenon of the quantum arises at the Planck scale from the discrete granularity of energy. This revelation is utilised in conjunction with the paradigm that Nature transpires from absolute correlative hetero-solutions, where each solution is the most minimal in substance but vast in potential, by introducing an absolute solution to the theoretical origin of distinct charges. This solution realises the minimal prerequisite for the formation of everything: particles, forces, and interactive processes, such that Nature was presented with just one ingredient – energy – to construct and activate the universe.
A preliminary investigation into experimentally measured radii of particles shows there is for both composite and elementary particles a simple correlation between their mass and size. Among the provisional and yet significant conclusions is the explanation of the mass expression in Einstein's famous equation. This explanation is an assertion as to the origin of mass.
If a true solution to a problem cannot be found is simply because the problem is not understood. To persevere, only formulate the research into thoroughly understanding the problem; the solution will naturally formulate itself.
Absolute solutions are ALWAYS the most simplest of solutions (albeit, the most difficult to ascertain). Indications are all of Nature, originating at the most fundamental level, transpires from correlated absolute solutions.